In the wake of the Harvey Weinstein cataclysm, women are coming forward in historic numbers to reveal that they have been sexually harassed, sexually abused and sexually assaulted. By men. That last bit gets left out a lot of the time. When we say, “She was sexually assaulted,” or “She was victimized,” we are implying the object of the assault. It lets the victimizer off the hook, much the way calling an incident in which a car hits a cyclist an accident does. With some exceptions, because it’s a weird diverse world, women are assaulted by men. Men assault. That’s a thing. And in the case of my particular species—the white, cisgendered, American male—we’ve done loads of it. And not just to women. We’ve victimized African Americans, Native Americans, Latinos, Asians and even each other. In that regard, we are egalitarian. Were there records of every rape, assault or event of sexual discrimination or harassment going back just the last 50 years I’m sure we’d all be rendered speechless by the staggeringly large number.

The #metoo campaign is about women coming forward, so it may seem odd to have someone who hasn’t suffered any variety of sexual assault, harassment or discrimination (and if I have, let’s just call it inherited karma), especially when that commentary is written by a member of the offending class. But that’s precisely why I’m writing. This isn’t to defend myself or to convince you that I’m a good guy. I’m writing because for years I’ve been hearing from women—friends, girlfriends and colleagues—of the suffering they’ve endured at the hands of men. Other the years, three different romantic partners revealed that they were assaulted at some level, up to and including rape. Given that I haven’t had that many romantic partners, it’s an ugly incidence rate. Every time, I’ve been shocked.

I’m writing because I’m tired of my species being the root of all evil. And honestly, there’s nothing like being called out by your peers.

So it’s high time: Guys, you’ve got to stop doing this. 

So what has this to do with cycling in general or RKP in specific? Well cycling has a women problem. Actually, what we have is an anything-but-white-guy problem. It’s not enough to just not rape a woman. It seems a small ask, right? It’s not enough. Consent, understanding what it means to be given permission to touch another person, seems to be a big problem. But in cycling we have a subtler problem but one that illustrates just how much the straight, white male still has to learn.

Chatting up each new woman on a ride is no way to make them feel comfortable. The fact is most men talk to men differently than they talk to women. Whether or not you believe the last statement, women are on to us. They know the difference. Hell, they pointed it out to me. Treating each new woman in a club as a potential date does nothing to make them feel welcome.

Bike companies that resort to sexist advertising, “booth babes” in trade shows and talking about getting dates liquored up are a big part of the problem of why cycling isn’t bigger. This isn’t a plea to be nice to women so that we can sell more bikes. That’s asinine. This is, “Your business is in trouble because you can’t treat everyone who isn’t white and male with dignity and respect.”

I’ve wanted to out the companies that have discriminated or harassed employees. But I haven’t been able to because women are so deeply in the minority of employees in the bike biz that to out those companies would mean implicitly fingering the women who outed them. So the silence continues.

I made a decision a few years ago not to include companies that use booth babes in my Interbike coverage. I’ve stuck by it, not that it’s all that hard. However, going forward, I can say that if I get a report from someone that female employees are being discriminated against, I will cease to write about that company. That’s my pledge. This has got to stop.

Finally: I’d like to invite our women readers to share your stories. If you want to share your stories of discrimination, harassment or worse, you can do so publicly in our comments section or privately at: info [at] redkiteprayer [dot] com.


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  1. Jean

    Thank you for this. It’s pretty messed up how we talk about sexual assault and abuse, and I hope we change the conversation. It’s hard for people to admit it’s a widespread, systematic problem. It’s not just in television or movies – it happens in offices, restaurants, and colleges.

  2. Jeff Dieffenbach

    Patrick, this: “Men assault. That’s a thing. And in the case of my particular species—the white, cisgendered, American male—we’ve done loads of it. And not just to women. We’ve victimized African Americans, Native Americans, Latinos, Asians and even each other.”

    Of course, it’s not just assault, it’s the “lesser” offenses of harassing, bullying, discriminating, and the like that makes the rap sheet dramatically longer.

    If nothing else, “and even each other” should capture and hold our attention.

    I love that you’ve found a way–boycotting offenders–to take action. It won’t often be easy, comfortable, or even, from a selfish perspective, prudent to join you, but I’ll pledge to do more.

    1. AC

      The thing is, it’s very easy to miss what companies are not being covered…because it could be for so many other reasons. Now we’re left to wonder if a product wasn’t covered because it wasn’t interesting, or because the company has done nefarious things.

      Perhaps instead, say ‘these are the companies we DO cover’, and this is why…

  3. Justin Barrett

    Bravo, Patrick. And thank you.
    I, too, have been shocked to find out the sheer number of women I know who’ve been victimized by sexual assault, discrimination, or intimidation. And I’m sure I don’t even know the half of it.
    We (men) need to do better. To be better.

  4. Nathan

    Patrick – from what I understand, you’re currently sleeping in an evacuation shelter as devastating forest fires bear down on your home from two directions. And yet here you are expressing concern for the experience of others, thinking about how you can use your talents and your position of influence to seek justice for others. This may be part of some sort of coping strategy, but I still admire your attitude.

    While I completely agree with the gist of your article, I do wonder if it is really as exceptional as you and many others claim for men to be on receiving end of some forms of sexual harrassment. Just the other week a woman old enough to know better called out “Hello, sexy!” in a leery tone as I was pushing my bike round some roadworks blocking the cycle path. Laughably small deal compared to what some women have experienced, sure, but it certainly made me feel uncomfortable.

    I don’t doubt that there are aspects of our culture that make it seem far more permissible for men to indulge in and get away with sexual harrassment than for women to do so. And if you compare the gender balance of cycling with, say, running, it’s clear that there are aspects of cycling culture that are pushing women away. We are right to examine these toxic habits and mindsets and work to fix them. I just worry that in reserving the role of victim exclusively for one gender, and attributing blame exclusively to another, we risk perpetuating the silence that persists around injustices much worse than the one I describe above.

    1. Author

      I don’t doubt that men have been sexually harassed and probably worse. The thing is, if we could actually tally all of the assault, harassment and discrimination that has taken place, I bet men have experienced less than a tenth of a percent. And I’m willing to bet that if we stopped, the miniscule number of offenses committed against men would simply vanish. Let’s focus on the heavy lifting, not the gold bricking.

      And thanks for your concern for me. We are back home now and steadily unpacking.

      Finally, no, this isn’t a coping strategy. My hackles rise with this stuff. Always. It’s emotional for me and no natural disaster can mitigate or influence it.


    Thanks for this!
    I’m happy to know that many cyclists are concerned with more than light wheels and shiny frames. When we become aware of problems with harassment, unjustified assumptions and privilege, we make the world better for everyone. I’m proud that RKP (and one of my favorite writers) has spoken out.
    Thanks from me. Thanks from my daughters. And thanks for helping us keep our heads on straight.

  6. Brian Ogilvie

    Well said! And for any straight cis men who feel uncomfortable when they think they’ve been objectified by a straight cis woman: unless you feel genuinely threatened that said woman is going to physically assault you, you’re not in a comparable situation, so please, think before you post. And before you get your hackles up: if you *did* feel genuinely threatened, that’s another story. I’m a 40something male, but I have a slim build and a ponytail, and I was once followed rather closely, for a couple minutes, by a driver who made me quite nervous. I suspect he gave up once he saw my five-o-clock shadow. I didn’t exactly feel threatened, but for a moment I felt like I had at least a dim understanding of what women experience with harassment and stalking.

  7. Fausto

    The power of this # message on social media is amazing to me, shows the good and powerful that this new medium can bring us together in just a few key strokes. I don’t need to ask the women I know if they have been physically assaulted in some way, I know they all have. Hey, we all remember what it was like to be 16 yrs old and stupid drunk on testosterone, men are pigs. College frat houses that were date rape dens of drunken horror. And guess what, people don’t change that much, now that a-hole is your boss in a fortune 500 company and has the power and money to get away with things on a different scale. I know I won the all amercian red blooded white male lottery, and fortunatelly I had the parents who taught me open mindedness, fairness, empathy and surround myself with people who are the same. Our sport is bat shit crazy the way it and the industry works. Our best bet at Olympic cycling and World medals, Women. Our chance for an American to win the Giro or Flanders, a Woman (done). World Cup Soccer, the ladies! It has been this way since King, Young, Heiden, Twigg just to name a few from the 70-80’s. Once saw Connie Carpenter beat Sarah Doctor, Beth Heiden, Cindy O. and then they all raced the MEN’s race for the training. Respect. Thanks for drawing a line, very cool.

  8. Maria

    In my feeds I see so many comments like the one from Nathan above: “I too, though being male, have been harassed”. Well white slave owners were probably sometimes beaten up and even killed by other white slave owners, and of course there were white people at the time who starved or lived shitty lives – that doesn’t mean the white/black oppression wasn’t (or isn’t) structural. I’m not protesting the fact that each individual has his/her own cross to bear, but a woman still has a hundredfold – probably thousandfold – higher risk of being harassed, raped, discriminated against as compared to a man. The #metoo tag addresses specifically that, not that one individual has suffered for what another individual has done to her/him. Sorry if that leaves you in the perpetrator group rather than the victim group. Believe me, being in the victim group isn’t all that fun either. I can count weekly instances of mild sexual harassment (that I’ve gotten so used to that it doesn’t even bother me anymore) throughout my life but also probably 30 times when I have actually feared either for my life or for being brutally raped – each and every time by a man, and each and every time leaving a scar, making me less prone to take part in certain activities that should be perfectly harmless. (It should be said, I am not a young woman anymore.) Each time a man: In a car driving slowly next to me as I walk home at night, by the restrooms to the back in a crowded nightclub, in the hallway of my building as my neighbour and his drunken friends invite me in, in bed with my first sexual partner (whom I didn’t dare say no to since we were on a bike trip with a bunch of people and I didn’t want to be the one to ruin the mood of the entire group), going back to my tent at a music festival, with my boss at the annual Christmas party. These are just some of the incidents and they include one actual instance of completed rape. (Which, obviously, I never reported.) I know I’m probably preaching to the choir here – and for that I am grateful. That choir, which includes posts like yours Patrick, makes this world a safer and gentler place. Thank you for speaking out and for taking action.

    1. Author

      I don’t quite know what to say other than I’m sorry. I wish you all the healing that’s possible and hope you’re never in a situation again that causes you to fear for your safety.

  9. Steve

    This is so great. And, in my experience, even if you think you know what to do… first just listen. Glad you are home, Patrick.

  10. David

    So…the self-flagellation of the white, American male continues. And now I see that this evil species (and here I didn’t realize the white, American male is a species separate from rest of the human race) whips himself a little harder because he realizes his own sexuality. Cisgendered? Really? I had to look that one up.

    I’m not into social media but I’ve heard about the #metoo campaign. Bringing attention to sexual harassment, rape or discrimination could never be a bad thing, especially if it results in a decrease or elimination of sexual crime, but I wonder how accurate is the portrayal of the rate of incidence as expressed in a social media campaign where there is no evidence required and no accountability held for the many nameless, faceless accusers, many of whom, I would wager, are white, American, cisgendered, evil men such as yourself. (Oy. That was a lot of commas but you get my point.)

    My wife and I have raised 3 boys. If you saw them, you would call them white boys, very white. But their Italian-immigrant, paternal great-grandparents were not considered “white” by the Americans who were here before them. And their maternal great grandmother was half Cherokee, interestingly, one of the whitest women I have ever seen. We taught our boys to respect all people without regard to race, ethnic, religious or gender labels and to act and live an honorable life. I also told them specifically, because I could see the attacks coming from a long way off, to not be apologetic for who they are or where they came from. Hard work and living by the Golden Rule will get them to where they desire to be in life. After that, there is no reason to feel guilt or shame over who you are or what so-called advantages you have had.

    I hope you can get to that point, Patrick.

    1. Jeff Dieffenbach

      Just guess, but I think that Patrick was being tongue-in-cheek with that particular usage of “species.”

      As for lack of evidence/accountability, well, there’s also the lack of accusation, so I don’t really see the foul. I suspect that the statistics back up (a) that harassment and worse is a real problem and (b) that the harassers are disproportionately male … and by a wide margin. From where I sit, #metoo powerfully and respectfully calls attention to a one of many problems that people face.

    2. Paul

      The clarion call, and you make it here, is for us to *respond* to the #MeToo campaign with something that de-legitimizes the prevailing male culture of harassment, objectification and assault. Merely being supportive of the women in our lives is NOT enough – sane men have to speak and act for material change in the culture.

    3. Author

      David, I’m sorry, but if you were a student of mine in an English class, you’d have failed for reading comprehension. That wasn’t self-flagellation, guilt or shame. It’s embarrassment that so many people so similar to me could behave in a manner so wholly unacceptable. That you fail to understand what the problem is suggests you’re part of the problem.

  11. David

    “..if you were a student of mine in an English class…” Now that’s a blatant and feeble attempt to establish a hierarchy. You are a fine and gifted writer with a talent not often seen in the blogosphere. I am none of those things but do not make the assumption that I am the intellectual lesser.

    It is interesting that you say I do not comprehend the meaning of your article. That’s laughable and disingenuous. “That wasn’t self-flagellation, guilt or shame.” It wasn’t? Your first paragraph highlights the blame you ascribe to white men. “And in the case of my particular species—the white, cisgendered, American male—we’ve done loads of it.” How can you ascribe blame without guilt? You further your condemnation of the white man, who you refer to as your “species”, when you say he is “…the root of all evil.” As the “root of all evil” surely you must feel shame for the crimes, the pestilence, the famine and death you have perpetrated on the world. I know I would. I noticed you stop short of calling the white man “The Devil”.

    And as for the self-flagellation? Carry the guilt and the condemnation of the rapists, molesters and sexual predators of our society if it makes you feel better, Professor Brady. Whip yourself in their stead and bleed the blood of self-righteousness and mis-guided penitence. But as for me and my sons and my fathers, I will not allow you or anyone else to crack that particular whip on our backs.

    That’s a bit more bombastic than I intended my response to be but so be it.

    Patrick, I respect you and your work. And, of course, I am sympathetic to all women who have been hurt by sexual harassment, discrimination or assault. We will just have to disagree on how you have decided to approach it. I will say no more.

  12. Üma

    I’ll chime in here as a woman who has been harassed, abused, and assaulted multiple times. The last time I was assaulted a man broke into my NYC apartment, beat me, strangled me and raped me. It took years of therapy to unpack surviving such a brutal attack. Really I didn’t want to. For some time I spent my life waking up each day wishing I hadn’t because while this was the WORST time, it wasn’t the FIRST time.
    My recovery, as it turned out, was found on the seat of a bicycle. Months after that assault I became a bike messenger in New York. From there I went to California and enjoyed endurance riding and touring. When I approached 40 I began road and track racing, and when a car “accident” took that from me I started mountain biking. I started writing a book about my experience—about how, for me, the bicycle was more than transpiration, it was also a tool of transformation. It restored me to joy, to life. Cycling was a seriously significant part of my PTSD therapy. Part church, part therapy, part gym and 100% fun (well, MTB anyway).
    So imagine my horror when I began to work in the bike industry and arrive to #sockgate at Interbike and when I express my frustration over the sexism am told by multiple (most) of my male
    colleagues, that I just need to get a sense of humor. That it doesn’t mean anything. That I need to “lighten up”. I tried to explain that I can’t “lighten up” because it’s things like sexist socks at a trade show which perpetuates rape culture. Once again my complaints were minimized, dismissed. Apparently I’m just no fun because I dislike rape culture. Essentially, it was “bros over hos”.
    Most recently I worked for a man I refer to as the Donald Trump of the bike industry. The daily bullying and threats, the overt rape culture, the predatory expressions toward young women, or the fact that he would often change from riding clothing into street clothing in the middle of the office sent me back 30 years, triggering PTSD and worst of all, robbing me of my joy and passion for riding. I was so exhausted from trying to survive the job that by the end of the day it was all I could do to go home and drink wine and try to forget.

    I kept the job for a year. Why? Why would a person sty in such an environment where they and everyone around them is abused? Where such a toxic, sociopathic “leader” threatens employees? Because I’m a single woman facing ageism in a massively sexist industry and I needed to pay bills. It taught me a lot about why abused women stay in terrible marriages; if you think your survival depends on staying you stay.

    I’m back to running my own consulting business as a writer, editor, and ghost writer. I’ll never take another job in the bike industry. I finally got back on the MTB last week for my first ride IN A YEAR. I wept with joy, and a lot of shame, but mostly joy.

    That shame? It doesn’t belong to me. It belongs to every man who has ever allowed sexism (or supremacy and domination) to pass unchecked. It belongs to every man who has told me I’m being “too sensitive” or that I need to “lighten up”. It belongs to guys like Harvey and Trump and my former boss, of course. But those are the easily identifiable villains in this story.

    The villains are many, and they have been silent and are complicit in a worldwide culture of rape. Don’t be that dude.

    I have kept silent about my story for years and I’m just now finishing that book I started writing 10 years ago. I kept silent because of what I said earlier—I needed the work. I love bikes. I tried. was afraid that telling my story would ostracize me, that the bike industry would reject me. Truth is, the industry had already done than in myriad ways. I still wonder: will my truth turn away potential clients in the industry? I no longer have any fucks to give about that. I’m not sure such an openly sexist industry deserves me, frankly.

    Thank you Patrick for braving pushback like this—and likely much worse—to speak up. My network of (male) friends have largely disappeared since I’ve been critical of the bike industry and shared my own #metoo(s). They like me just fine when I’m smiling wide on a downhill run, but god forbid I be a woman, or even a human.

    And if anyone pipes up with #notallmen I will reach through the internet and bitch please slap you. If you haven’t challenged bro culture, you are definitely part of the problem. That ain’t me being mean, it’s me being honest.

    1. Author

      Üma, it’s stories like yours that make me wonder how any man has a chance at a healthy relationship with a woman. And it also embarrasses me into thinking I haven’t done nearly enough as well as making me simultaneously wonder what I do to do more. Thanks for writing, both to us, and your larger story. I look forward to its publication. And finally, it’s a shame that the bike industry keeps losing smart women like you. We could be so much better than we are.

    2. Laura

      Uma, I am very sorry you have had those experiences and am damned proud of you for not only surviving but sharing your story. It is my deepest hope that this movement results in a kinder gentler world. One caveat, I want to see you “reach through the internet and bitch please slap” anyone who #notallmen! I will even join you!

      Harassment is my wheelhouse. I suppose a few overly aggressive groping sessions with dates could have slid across the harassment line into the assault category, but harassment follows most girls I know like a shadow. My first boss made it clear that he appreciated my skirts, wanted to watch me eat bananas, questioned my pubic hair choices. I worked in government where legislators had hotel rooms and many tried giving me room keys on a regular basis. Power seems to bring out the worst in some people. I didn’t quit because I needed the job. There is shame in my silence that I am not sure will ever go away. I was young, straight out of college and I work hard to not let that feeling define me. The bike is a sanctuary. Somehow it fills in the cracks with strength and confidence. However, I’d be lying if I didn’t think about being a woman alone on a ride each and every time I go out.

      Padraig, I have been reading this blog since I got my first adult bike 8 years ago. You have moved me to tears, inspired me, confused me and made my heart race with your words. Never in the past 8 years have I been so proud to be one of your readers. I don’t know all the answers, but I feel like the world needs more open hearts like yours. Thank you.

    3. Author

      Thank you Laura. Now the tears are mine. I feel deficient much of the time; I’ve still got so much work to do. I’ll keep at it.

  13. Gerb61

    Padraig, although we never met I came to respect you through your writing. Hardly a day went by without dropping by the RKP site. I resent being lumped into the same category as sexual harassers, molesters and rapists just by way of being a white male. As if Blacks, Hispanics and Asians never engage in this behavior? As the father of a 12 year old daughter I have to set a positive example 24/7/365,no pressure there in today’s society.
    If I had suggested “reaching through the internet to bitch please slap someone” I would bet good money that comment would have been deleted real fast before it saw the light of day. It is not right for women to be treated like this, but a blanket condemnation of the white male population, or the male population in general, does nothing to solve the problems that exist, be sexual abuse or racism. This respect thing works both ways.
    Good day, I won’t be coming back here any more.

    1. Author

      I wrote from the my seat, that of a straight, white male. Nothing I wrote suggests that men of other races don’t do this, but white men have been responsible for more marginalization and oppression than every other arrangement of gender and race on the planet. That’s a simple fact. We bear a greater responsibility than any other group.

  14. David

    Patrick wrote, “…but white men have been responsible for more marginalization and oppression than every other arrangement of gender and race on the planet. That’s a simple fact.”

    I cannot let that go unchallenged. Your assertion of this “simple fact” is one of two things. 1. This is a misinformed opinion nurtured by gross ignorance or 2. An outright lie intent on malevolence. To be kind, I will assume the former.

    You need to brush up on World History, Professor Brady. Let me introduce you to Genghis Kahn, the non-white leader of the 13th century Mongol hordes who warred, conquered, murdered, pillaged and raped their way across most of Eurasia. Their success in war and lust for blood culminated in an empire that stretched roughly from the the Sea of Japan north to Siberia, and from the Pacific coast of China west to central Europe. It is difficult to know the actual numbers but it is estimated that Genghis Kahn and the Mongols killed approximately 40 million people during the expansion and rule of that non-white empire.

    Their treatment of women was no less brutal. Please read the National Geographic article titled, “Genghis Kahn a Prolific Lover, DNA Data Implies”. Here is a short excerpt-

    “His military conquests were frequently characterized by the wholesale slaughter of the vanquished. His descendants extended the empire and maintained power in the region for several hundred years, in civilizations in which harems and concubines were the norm. And the males were markedly prolific.

    Khan’s eldest son, Tushi, is reported to have had 40 sons. Documents written during or just after Khan’s reign say that after a conquest, looting, pillaging, and rape were the spoils of war for all soldiers, but that Khan got first pick of the beautiful women. His grandson, Kubilai Khan, who established the Yuan Dynasty in China, had 22 legitimate sons, and was reported to have added 30 virgins to his harem each year.”

    Genghis Kahn and his sons so freely deposited their sperm and their non-white DNA into so many women that it was estimated, in 2003, that Genghis Kahn’s descendants numbered 16 million.

    Listen to Dan Carlin’s “Hardcore History” for more information about Genghis Kahn.

    1. Author

      Let’s just talk about dead people and not isolate this to how women are treated.

      Number of deaths in World War I: roughly 37 million
      Number of deaths in World War II: roughly 80 million
      Number of deaths of Native Americans at the hands of whites: roughly 18 million

      All of that led by the white man. Khan doesn’t come close. And that’s just three examples.

  15. VeloKitty

    > white men have been responsible for more marginalization and
    > oppression than every other arrangement of gender and race
    > on the planet. That’s a simple fact.
    > Number of deaths in World War II: roughly 80 million

    A significant percentage of the fatalities in WWII were Chinese at the hands of the Japanese. White men initiated the Japanese invasion? Speaking of the Chinese, what about the Great Chinese Famine? White men responsible too? What about the caste system in India? White men responsible too?

    Just going by the numbers, China and India are the largest countries by population, are non-white, and have been responsible for the largest oppression.

    I’m glad some others have been pointing out your lack of knowledge of history.

  16. David


    The Taiping Rebellion in China – number of deaths estimated as high as 100 million. On the basis of this historical fact and those noted previously, if I were to follow the logic you show in your writings here, then I might proclaim the Chinese as “the root of all evil”. But I will do no such thing.

    It boils down to this – there is plenty enough evil in this world for all races to share an equal burden of blame if one were so eager to proclaim judgement against them. But you are bent on demonizing the white man, and I doubt you’ll let the facts get in the way of your feelings.

  17. Shawn

    I’m shocked at how strong both poles of my ambivalence are. Reading Laura and Uma’s accounts in the comments is appropriately painful and disturbing. This husband/father wants a better experience for his wife and young daughters and will go to extreme lengths to make it happen. Read it. Want to do more. The article and the narratives it invited are strong that way.

    We want the same things, don’t we? So why do I find the piece as repulsive as it is attractive? It’s the gratuitous finger-wagging. The brush is too broad. Tarring an entire group because of bad conduct by some of its members doesn’t work for racism, sexism, or other bigotries. That kind of misinformed attack shouldn’t be tolerated even in the service of the purest motives. So yeah, that’s why.

  18. Author

    The shame in the comments here is that I’ve received emails from multiple women readers who have told me that the comments are hostile enough to my post that they don’t feel safe to comment. *sigh*

    1. VeloKitty

      They’ve felt threatened by the comments directed at you challenging your ridiculous blanket statements? It doesn’t seem plausible. Anyway, in my opinion, you chose to lead the comment thread astray by making wild claims about white men as a whole, claims which are horribly ignorant of history and easily provable to be false. I guess the point of your original article was the same, to indict white males as a whole, but you were more diplomatic about it and didn’t make the wild historical claims.

      The “historical” claims you are making do not help our cause. You are furthering neither justice for women, nor humans in general by making ignorant statements.

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